unit 1 intro to philosophy

1. Logic is the study of reason and arguments. A. True B. False 2. Philosophy studies life’s most basic questions. A. True B. False 3. Philosophical questions are primarily subjective in nature. A. True B. False 4. The value of studying philosophy is that it develops your analytical abilities and your capacity for abstract thought. A. True B. False 5. The word philosophy derives from two ancient Greek words: philia, which means love, and sophia, which means wisdom. A. True B. False 6. Philosophical questions are conceptual in nature; __________ deal in probability and plausibility rather than absolute truth and falsehood. A. Philosophical uncertainties B. Philosophical answers C. Philosophical doubts D. Philosophical statements 7. A major philosophical concept, ________________, deals with basic human characteristics and similar traits in other beings like chimpanzees and dolphins. A. Personhood B. Selfhood C. Self-being D. Primitive self Unit 1 Examination 45 Introduction to Philosophy 8. A(n) ________ fallacy involves an argument’s subject matter. A. Formal B. Informal C. Truth D. False 9. The two parts of an argument are _____. A. Premises and conclusion B. Fact and conclusion C. Premises and falsehoods D. Facts and truths 10. Another word for the facts, evidence, theories, or ideas that allegedly lead to an argument’s claim is _____. A. Premises B. Conclusions C. Formal fallacy D. Informal fallacy 11. If it’s sunny, Jennifer goes surfi ng. Jennifer went surfi ng today. Therefore, it must have been sunny. This is an excellent illustration of affi rming the consequent, a formal fallacy. A. True B. False 12. “A square has four sides” is a necessary and suffi cient condition for defi ning a square. A. True B. False 13. The potions riddle in Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone is an excellent example of logical thinking. A. True B. False Unit 1 Examination 46 Introduction to Philosophy 14. If someone is a student at Hogwart’s, then he or she is studying witchcraft and wizardry. Neville Longbottom is a student at Hogwart’s. Therefore, Neville Longbottom is studying witchcraft and wizardry. This is an excellent example of Modus Ponens, or the Asserting Rule. A. True B. False 15. Analytical thinking is the philosophical application of psychoanalysis. A. True B. False 16. Crossing the fi nish line fi rst in a race in which you competed fairly and without cheating is a necessary and suffi cient condition for you to be the winner. A. True B. False 17. The idea that there is one special person somewhere in the world that is your destiny to meet and fall in love with is an example of ______. A. Fatalism B. Determinism C. Free will D. Pragmatism 18. A theory that claims that all human behavior is the result of scientifi cally identifi able natural forces is an example of _____. A. Fatalism B. Determinism C. Free will D. Pragmatism 19. B.F. Skinner believes that human freedom is impossible. A. True B. False Unit 1 Examination 47 Introduction to Philosophy 20. Freudianism claims that the human personality has neither conscious nor unconscious dimensions. A. True B. False 21. A “Freudian slip” is an example of how the unconscious can determine what we say. A. True B. False 22. Sartre accepts the idea that _______________, that is, the theory that our choices determine our nature. A. Existence precedes essence B. Essence precedes existence C. Free will D. Determinism 23. The theory of free will implies about responsibility that because our actions result from our own choices, we are fully responsible for them. A. True B. False 24. Aristotle agrees with the following statement: The more we understand people, the more we know how little responsibility they have for their actions. A. True B. False 25. According to Ellis, irrational beliefs prove that determinism is correct. A. True B. False
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