intro to philosophy unit 3

1. Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes and other thinkers such as Heraclitus and Parmenides are known as the Pre-Socratics. A. True B. False 2. __________maintains that object no not exist apart from being perceived. A. Thales B. Berkeley C. Anaximander D. Heraclitus 3. Berkeley claims that God constantly perceives reality, and thus gives it ultimate existence. A. True B. False 4. An Anthropomorphic account of reality explains things by appealing to cultural terms. A. True B. False 5. The basic idea underlying Plato’s understanding of the nature of reality is that ideas are more real than the objects that present themselves to our senses. A. True B. False 6. The philosophical tradition that Plato represents is called materialism. A. True B. False 7. The philosophical approach to knowledge known as ________claims that knowledge comes from sensory experiences. A. Empiricism B. Rationalism C. Determinism D. None of the above Unit 3 Examination 137 Introduction to Philosophy 8. Hume thinks that to the extent that knowledge is possible, it ultimately depends on___________. A. The senses B. The truth C. Our Knowledge D. Our beliefs 9. Hume uses the example of a billiard ball hitting another to question the concept of causality. A. True B. False 10. Gilbert Ryle uses the term ___________ to describe an error in logical categories, otherwise known as “comparing apples to oranges.” A. Category mistake B. False logic C. False truth D. Error in thought 11. “A triangle has three sides” is an example of an analytic statement. A. True B. False 12. Kant tried to synthesize the epistemological views of the rationalists and empiricists. A. True B. False 13. Locke states that qualities like color, taste, and smell are primary qualities of an object, and are not processed by the mind. A. True B. False 14. The problem of evil is taken up in the Bible in the book of job. A. True B. False Unit 3 Examination 138 Introduction to Philosophy 15. Aquinas defi nes _________ as potentialities becoming actualized. A. Motion B. Sense of self C. Our soul D. energy 16. A rationalistic argument concerning God’s existence claims that by merely contemplating the notion of God as “that-than-which-nothing-greater-can-be-thought,” we become aware that God must exist. A. True B. False 17. ___________claims the fear is the basis of religion, that people “accept religion on emotional grounds.” A. Bertrand Russell B. David Hume C. Thomas Aquinas D. Saint Anselm 18. David Hume dismisses such arguments about God’s existence from causality with the claim that the material universe itself might be a necessarily existent being, which means there is no need for a “fi rst cause.” A. True B. False 19. Anselm’s discussion of the possibility of God’s existence relies on empirical evidence alone. A. True B. False 20. Marx calls the type of work that characterizes capitalism_____________. A. Alienated labor B. Punishment C. Forces Labor D. None of the above Unit 3 Examination 139 Introduction to Philosophy 21. _________ is an essentially deterministic principle which is, paradoxically, based on the idea of individual free choice. A. Karma B. Rebirth C. Free will D. Spiritual life 22. The Supreme Buddha was a prince from fi fth century B.C. Nepal who became a great spiritual leader. A. True B. False 23. _______________ is the Buddhist idea that because the task of spiritual development is too complex to accomplish in one lifetime, we live many lives. A. Karma B. Rebirth C. Free will D. Spiritual life 24. The Buddhist conception of the self is the source of the way the self is understood in Western philosophy. A. True B. False 25. Unlike Western religions, Buddhism emphasizes the importance of practicing meditation as an important way to foster spiritual development. A. True B. False
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