Financial and Managerial Accounting

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Though, financial accounting and managerial accounting systems prepare and analyze the same financial data, they also differ in some aspects. For example the users of the information are different. Also the procedures for their preparations differ including the time frames. Cost accounting is another sphere of accounting that deals with the analysis of costs of products and activities in an organization. It forms a substantial part of managerial accounting...


Industrial Development Bank of India

The Banking Industry was once a simple and reliable business that took deposits from investors at a lower interest rate and loaned it out to borrowers at a higher rate. However deregulation and technology led to a revolution in the Banking Industry that saw it transformed. Banks have become global industrial powerhouses that have created ever more complex products that use risk and securitisation in models that only PhD students can understand. Through technology development,...


Different Objectives in Firms and Shareholders

INTRODUCTION Firms may have different objectives to achieve. However in theory, a firm should set its' objectives to increase its value for its owners. Shareholders are the owners of a firm. Therefore according to theory maximising shareholders wealth is the fundamental objective of a firm. (Watson & Head -Corporate Finance principles and practice 2007) Investors generally expect to earn satisfactory returns on their investments as they require increasing the value...


Investment Appraisal Definition

Evaluation of the attractiveness of an investment proposal, using methods such as average rate of return, internal rate of return (IRR), net present value (NPV), or payback period. Investment appraisal is an integral part of capital budgeting (see capital budget), and is applicable to areas even where the returns may not be easily quantifiable such as personnel, marketing, and training AVERAGE RATE OF RETURN (ARR) DEFINITION: Method of investment appraisal which...


Ethics in Financial Reporting

INTRODUCTION The first thing is character, before money or anything else. - J. P. Morgan Integrity is of utmost importance for a successful career in business and finance in the long run. Some believe that the world of finance lacks ethical considerations. Whereas the truth is that such issues are prevalent in all areas of business. The business environment in much of the world is reeling from the revelation of several financial scandals in the past few years....


Capital Asset Pricing Model

‘The Capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is a very useful model and it is used widely in the industry even though it is based on very strong assumptions. Discuss in the light of recent developments in the area.’ “Sometimes your best investments are the ones you don't make."[1] This maxim shows the complexity of investing. In 1963, the finance journal article “Capital Asset Prices: A Theory of Market Equilibrium under Conditions of Risk”...


Parmalat Accounting Scandal summary

The Parmalat Accounting Scandal 1. THE EVENTS LEADING UP TO THE PARMALAT ACCOUNTING SCANDAL AND ULTIMATELY THE REVELATION OF THE ACCOUNTING FRAUD AND THE REASONS BEHIND THE SCANDAL? Evolving from a small dairy shop into an international concern, Parmalat appeared to be a gigantic and stable dairy producer. At some point in time, it may well have been gigantic and stable, but in December 2003, shocking news was broken to Parma, Italy, and the world at...


Modigliani Miller Proposition

1. INTRODUCTION According to many research of corporation finance, the capital structure decision is one of the most fundamental issues facing to the executives and management level. The corporate finance is a specific area of finance dealing with the financial decisions corporations make and the tools as well as analysis used to make these decisions. The discipline as a whole may be divided among long-term and short-term decisions and techniques with the primary goal being...


Accounting Theory and Practice

ABSTRACT This paper discusses the statement: "there is no universally accepted accounting theory." In addition, it offers some basic and historical background regarding accounting and discusses the different approaches to develop an accounting theory, before describing three common accounting theories. Finally, the reality of the above statement and the factors that confront a universal accounting theory are debated. INTRODUCTION Accounting is a very old...


Restaurant Business and Operations Plan

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Delicias unlike other typical restaurants will provide a unique excellent food at value pricing within an entertaining atmosphere. Delicias will be setup due to an increasing demand in value for everything the food purchased; customers are not willing to accept anything that does not meettheir expectations and a need for entertaining while dining. Delicias will provide soups/salads, appetizers, desserts and entrees to the San Diego market. I will setup...


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